Some examples

Centrifugal Force


Example. A vehicle with a weight of 1200 kg (2654 lbs) traveling at 90 kph (56 mph) and taking a bend with a radius of 50 m (164 feet) will be subject to a centrifugal force of:
1200 X (25x25)/50 = 15,000 N
Or 15,000/9.81 = 1529 kg (1.68 tons)
The force towards the outside of the bend (FC) exercised on the vehicle equals more than 1.5 tonnes (1.68 tons) 


Kinetic energy


Example. An HGV with a mass of 40 tonnes (40,000 kg/44.09 tons) traveling at 90 kph (56 mph) “represents” a kinetic energy of:
40,000 X (25 x 25) X ½ = 12,500,000 J or 12,500,000/9.80665 = 1,274,645.2 kg or 1274.64 tonnes (1.41 tons)
1 kilogram-meter = 9.80665 joules
In the case of an impact with a fixed obstacle at 90 kph (56 mph), this HGV represents a weight of 1274 tonnes (1.41 tons), or 32 times its initial mass...

(Mechanical) stopping distance


Example. A private car traveling at 50 kph (31 mph) on a dry road with new tires has an adhesion factor of 0.8 at a (mechanical) stopping distance of:

13.88 x 13.88/19.62 X 0.8 = 7.85 m (25.75 feet)

Total stopping distance


To this mechanical stopping distance, we must add the distance traveled during the driver’s reaction time.

Example. For a driver of a vehicle traveling at 50 kph (31 mph) on a road with an adhesion factor of 0.8, one second corresponds to 13.88 m (45.5 feet) traveled, or a total stopping distance of 7.85 m (25.75 feet) + 13.88 m (45.5 feet) = 21.73 m (71.25 feet) 

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